It also facilitated the spread of Arabic language systems into Northern Africa 11 8205978050 Caravanserai inn or rest station for caravans, would provide a safe place to stay the night, supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of Africa, Arabia and Asia 12 8205978051 Checks A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power 13 8205978052 Citrus A fruit of the family that includes oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and limes 14 8205978053 Compass an instrument containing a magnetized pointer that shows the direction of magnetic north and bearings from it. How did the Mongol rule change China? It was first developed and had gained its popularity as a luxury item not just in China, but in other places around the world during this time period. This meant that the men had more rights than the women did and that the women were subordinate to men. How has the image of the Mongols changed in recent times? He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. · Arabs were prohibited from assuming ownership of conquered territory. The Mongols united a divided China. Religion and Empire · The Sasanids established Zoroastrianism as the state religion, and Byzantium did the same with Christianity.
· Factionalism began to abate and new institutions were created to provide the umma a new sort of religious center. Because of the economic and political relationships the Mongols had with the rest of the world, it caused cross culture transfer. · Without central religious authority, Islam was flexible enough to accommodate many different social situations. This supported population growth but at the same time strained environmental resources and caused dramatic demographic swings. It was carried by rodents and fleas and transmitted to humans.
§ Making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in your lifetime. Khan Ghazan sent envoys to various parts of the world and since Europe had been largely cut off from trade network, the Mongol conquests reopened the path way for them. Why did the Mongols have minimal cultural impact on the peoples they conquered? Innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies. Japanese first migrated to islands from mainland Asia in 300 A. Identify the major steps in the rise of the Mongol Empire. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
· Muhammad took responsibility for his umma, new revelations providing instructions for regulating social and legal problems, and urging Muslims to fight against the Meccans. Why were Western Europeans interested in contact with the Mongols?. § It became common for Muslim men to belong to at least one brotherhood. That is one of the reasons why a more primitive cushion saddle was often used for riding purposes, specifically military ones. · Law guaranteed daughters a share of inheritance equal to half of that given to a son, this remained their property to sell or keep. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period. How did Chinese and other East Asian medical techniques and inventions spread westward to Europe? Muhammad in Mecca and Medina · Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570, and around 610 he was meditating in the mountains when he claimed to receive a vison from the angel Gabriel.
· Science and technology flourished, doctors and astronomers developing theories more advanced than Europeans. · In 431, a council of bishops declared Nestorian Christians heretics for emphasizing the humanity of Christ, they then sought refuge under the shah. · Islam forbade enslaving other Muslims, as well as Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, but being enslaved as a prisoner of war was an exception. It had during this time period and was a popular trading item simply because spices were so valuable to people during this era and they were very difficult to get, for one, because they were too expensive, and trading was the only way that some regions could even get their hands on this precious luxury item. · The city-states lost independence after the Fatimid dynasty was established in Tunisia. They attacked, conquered and used the excess resources to prepare for another attack, they were ruthless.
There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes. At first historians were far more critical of these nomads, presenting them as barbarians who merely plundered other lands. These networks were mainly sustained by pastoral or nomadic groups. Existing trade routes had flourished and it helped the new trading cities grow. They converted themselves from nomads into the elite of a huge militaristic state. The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christian, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples.
· The rise of a class of religious scholars ulama worked against permanent division of the umma. It spread quickly through practices of trade, warfare, and diffusion characteristic of this period. · The Sasanid and Byzantine Empires maintained central control of finances and military power. · The new dynasty adopted the traditions of the Sasanid shahs, government grew more complex in Baghdad, the new capital. This seemed to be based on whether or not there was of conflict in areas involved with the Silk Road. Middle East lost one third of its population.
New labor practices spawned from the shifts in production and increased trading volumes. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate, 632-1258 A. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century. It influenced much of Mesoamerica. This allowed the Vikings to move down the Volga river and establish Kiev as a trade center 55 8205978094 Xuanzang A famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period.
The hump can have weight placed on it without much uncomfort to the animal. Invaded India and planted Islam there as well. § Prayer five times a day. Succession to Muhammad · Muhammad died in 632, and Abu Bakr was chosen to succeed him, calling him the khalifa caliph. Temujin, later dubbed Chinggis Khan, succeeded in bringing the Mongols together, unifying them in the Great Mongol Nation by 1206. Social and gender structures evolved in response to these changes.
Through this Mongol world war, Chinggis Khan and his successors constructed an empire that included China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, much of the Islamic Middle East, and parts of Eastern Europe. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A. How did Ghazan change Mongol rule in Persia? They Revolted from resentment towards the nobility. Also, powerful states in Mesoamerica and the Andean Region emerged in the Americas. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.