Answer Lymph Blood It is red-coloured fluid It is a colourless fluid. In this chapter, students will learn about the composition and properties of blood and lymph tissue fluid and the mechanism of circulation of blood is also explained herein. Arteriosclerosis : The state of hardening of arteries and arterioles due to thickening of the fibrous tissue and consequent loss of elasticity. It transports nutrients from the tissue cells to the blood, through lymphatic vessels. Circulation was first used independently by , and. It is formed in bone marrow. The blood is then pumped into lungs for oxygenation via pulmonary artery.
The hepatic portal vein carries blood from intestine to the liver before it is delivered to the systemic circulation. But the collagen fibers of the outer layer are very well developed. Amphibians and the reptiles except crocodiles have a 3-chambered heart with two atria and a single ventricle, whereas crocodiles, birds and mammals possess a 4-chambered heart with two atria and two ventricles. This pressure forces plasma and nutrients out of the capillaries and into surrounding tissues. Structurally veins resemble arteries except that the three layers are very thin and more elastic. Interactive Link Questions Review Questions 1. The body cavity is known as hemocoele and the blood is hemolymph.
Extreme dehydration can result in kidney failure. It is a hollow, muscular organ composed of cardiac muscle fibres. It helps in body defence and is a part of the immune system. The P Wave is a small upward wave that represents electrical excitation or the atrial depolarisation which leads to contraction of both the atria atrial contraction. However, they get mixed up in the single ventricle which pumps out mixed blood. When both the auricles and ventricles are in relaxed or diastolic phase. It transports nutrients and oxygen from one organ to another.
Significance of Rh Group: An Rh -ve person, if exposed to Rh +ve blood, will form specific antibodies against the Rh antigens. These are the Body Fluids And Circulation class 11 Notes Biology prepared by team of expert teachers. In contrast, teeth have the lowest proportion of water, at 8—10 percent. After this, deoxygenated blood from various parts comes back to heart by superior and inferior vena cava into the right atria. This heart beat rate differs from species to species. Hemolymph circulates in the whole body due to the contractile activity of heart.
Semilunar Valves : The valves present at the opeing of the right and the left ventricles and allow the entry of blood into pulmonary artery and the aorta respectively. This can be avoided by administering anti- Rh antibodies to the mother immediately after the delivery of the first child. The heart pumps out deoxygenated blood which is oxygenated by the gills and sent to the body parts from where deoxygenated blood is carried to the heart. This increases the flow of blood into the ventricles by about 30 per cent. Globulins primarily are involved in defence mechanisms of the body and the albumins help in osmotic balance.
Mainly there are two chambers in a heart — auricle or atrium that receives the deoxygenated blood from various parts of the body; and a ventricle that distributes the oxygenated blood to the body. Highly complex organisms have complexed circulatory systems. Sino-atrial node is called the pacemaker of our heart. Medications that can result in edema include vasodilators, calcium channel blockers used to treat hypertension, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogen therapies, and some diabetes medications. Fluid Compartments in the Human Body. It also carries absorbed fats and lipids from the small intestine to the blood in the form of chylomicron droplets. A decrease in the normal levels of plasma proteins results in a decrease of colloid osmotic pressure which counterbalances the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries.
Lymph returns and excess interstitial fluid to the. Fish — 2 chambered heart Amphibian and Reptiles except crocodile — 3 chambered heart. Fats are absorbed through lymph in the lacteals present in the intestinal villi. The second largest volume is the interstitial fluid, which surrounds cells that are not blood cells. Rh Incompatibility of Foetus and Mother: A special case of Rh incompatibility is observed between the Rh —ve blood of a pregnant mother with Rh +ve blood of the foetus. Sino-atrial node is called the pacemaker of our heart. However, as the ventricular diastole continues, the pressure of blood in the ventricles falls below the pressure of blood in the auricles.
Answer Heart is called myogenic because all the normal activities of the heart are regulated intrinsically or the activities are auto regulated by specialised muscles known as nodal tissues without the need for an external stimulus to be delivered by the nervous system. Heart failure or Congestive Heart failure: is a disorder caused when the heart is not pumping the blood efficiently enough to meet the needs of the body. The end of the T-wave marks the end of systole. In most of the veins the middle coat is extremely thin with practically no muscles. Describe the evolutionary change in the pattern of heart among the vertebrates. Circulation is often used in as an intermediate variable to calculate forces on an or other body. The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood to different parts of the body.
This complex is formed by a series of linked enzymatic reactions cascade process. They always carry Deoxygenated Blood except the Pulmonary Vein which carry Oxygenated Blood. The end of T-wave marks the end of systole. There is an elaborate network of vessels called the lymphatic system. An interesting unit of human physiology which includes blood vascular system of living world, human blood, coagulation of blood, human heart, cardiac output, heart sound, conduction and regulation of heart beat etc. Another body fluid, lymph, also helps in the transport of certain substances. Along with the auricular diastole, the ventricular systole starts.
Correspondingly, the of vorticity is the circulation. Recall that an osmotic gradient is produced by the difference in concentration of all solutes on either side of a semi-permeable membrane. Coagulation is a mechanism to prevent excessive loss of blood in case of injury. Fishes have a 2-chambered heart with an atrium and a ventricle. As the ventricular pressure declines further, the tricuspid and bicuspid valves are pushed open by the pressure in the atria exerted by the blood which was being emptied into them by the veins. Solutlion: Plasma proteins constitute about 7 to 8% of plasma.