The book has eleven chapters namely Pangaea revisited the Neolithic reconsidered, The Norse and the Crusaders, The Fortunate Isles, Winds, Within reach beyond grasp, Weeds, Animals, Ills, New Zealand and Explanations other than Prologue and Conclusion. Epidemic disease mortality from introduced Old World infections contributed to population loss, striking hardest in Central Mexico, but other impacts of colonialism slave raids, warfare, territory displacement, social upheaval, famine, etc. And I really want to believe it because it seems right. Outside the Fort Pitt incident, the only other possible, and probably accidental, instance of contaminated bedding sparking a smallpox epidemic involved the steamboat St. Crosby notes that although this approach would seem powerful, these zones enjoyed different fauna and flora. We are limited to evidence from human remains, written contact-period accounts, and inferences from modern emerging infectious diseases. The larger the number of diseases it was e.
Comparison: All four historians call for the study of environmental history as an interaction between and among the human and nonhuman components of the natural world. It was, just specifically zoonosis from domesticated animals. The vastness of time and place is also worrying because it is so vast. To summarize that post and subsequent comments, a multitude of factors influenced Native American population decline after contact. I mean, they had to deal with it when they went to Africa later. For a much better analysis of Diamond's preconceived ideas influencing his conclusions, please check out 's badhistory analysis of Chapter 3- Collision at Cajamarca.
The way in which the world is perceived, understood, and interpreted at any given time by a society or social group. Some scholars focus only on the human elements associated with the success of European development while others only focus on geographic luck. What about a salmon mode of production, or a plow agricultural mode of production? To be very, very generous, one element of the theory, namely a large pool of susceptible human hosts, could have influenced pathogen evolution after the development of sedentary agriculture-based population centers, but that is the one pillar left standing after demolishing the house of cards. He retired from the University of Texas in 1999 as Professor Emeritus of Geography, History, and American Studies. The Columbian Exchange became even more unbalanced with Europe's successful appropriation of New World staple crops originally developed by Native Americans.
Only so can life have meaning and purpose. In the interest of transparency, here is my original, and wrong, malaria analysis. Pathogens can spread through direct contact between the carrier and a susceptible host, or use indirect methods like mosquitoes or contaminated water to find a new host. Thus there was the need for the Europeans to bring along with them export their Fauna to this New World. I am having a devil of a time finding sources on the deeper history of the Orthomyxoviridae family. In this hypothesis, Crosby observes that Europe and the Neo-Europes share the same temperate zones. This book makes major contributions to the field of environmental history by arguing that humans do in fact have a certain amount of control over their destiny, but also their destiny is inevitably shaped by their environment.
Discussion of politics in historical context, and badhistory by current political figures are allowed. European-style agricultural practice utilized in dry regions like Australia and South Africa has had a catastrophic environmental impact. And, of course, we can never forget the east-west orientation argument. Lessons from Modern Zoonotic Diseases The main reason for the failure of lethal crowd epidemics to arise in the Americas becomes clear when we pause to ask a simple question. Peaches: brought by Spaniards to Florida, brought north and grown by Amerindians, abandoned and were naturalized as Amerindian populations declined. Magellan killed in Phillipines, Elcado commands voyage home. Often it appeared that whole areas were abandoned and left vacant before Europeans arrived.
Once clashing cultural expectations arose at a few crossroad locations, civilized societies were liable to keep on changing, acquiring new skills, expanding their wealth and power, and disturbing other peoples round about. Food, for example, is not just material extracted from the environment through technologies, but is a cultural construct. The first description of a measles-like illness comes from Abu Becr in the 9th century, and indicate the divergence of rinderpest and measles when measles became an exclusively human virus dates to the 11th and 12th centuries, around the time the first epidemics of the disease appear in the written record. In conclusion, the book is interesting, humorous and relatively easy to read. Even at De Soto's time, the presence of European diseases had weakened the populations.
The purpose of bringing these foreign entities to the land by colonists was simple, it was profitable. Gender, race, and class are important in understanding divisions and subgroups within history. The Crusaders failed to conquer the lands of the Middle East because the native populations were more numerous, and the diseases found there worked against the Europeans. He attributes the evolution of the life forms to the centrifugal forces within the earth. What is meant by the following terms as applied to environmental history and which authors in this chapter use or assume them? In the absence of good historical data I will give Diamond the benefit of the doubt and say influenza perfectly matches his thesis. Zoonotic diseases have long been an interest of mine, and I have tended to think that Diamond's thesis has some validity to it, but you've given me a lot to read and think about. In India also the process of destruction of Himalayan forest ecology started as the part of imperialistic exploitation of the third world.
Individual consciousness is the totality of one's thoughts, feelings, and impressions, the awareness of one's acts and volitions. Lethal Livestock and Shagging Sheep Diamond opens the chapter with a fun story of bestiality to establish the, uh, unique bond between humans and their domesticated animals. The introduction of new diseases into populations that had no experience or immunity to these diseases becomes a severe problem for the indigenous peoples that Europeans encounter. Never knew about that, thanks for the inclusion. An order of magnitude error is close enough, right? To be very, very generous, one element of the theory, namely a large pool of susceptible human hosts, could have influenced pathogen evolution after the development of sedentary agriculture-based population centers, but that is the one pillar left standing after demolishing the house of cards.
Crosby is basically a teacher and researcher in natural history. Perhaps the success of European imperialism has a biological, an ecological, component. We need to be careful with the ecosystem we use now to ensure its future. He did a great job, and I would just be parroting his fine work. Maori groups, decimated by European disease and too willingly adapting European culture, eventually allowed Britain to make them a colony in hopes of maintaining some of their own culture. Your calm explanation of his errors serves as a strong contrast to my darkly sarcastic, angry, cathartic rant. He minimizes the role of wildlife.