Moreover, the theory does not accommodate individual personalities, which can make one distinctly respond to motivators or hygiene factors. Despite these limitations, Herzbergs Two-Factor theory is acceptable broadly. This arose in relatively few cases within the study and was not considered a major factor by Herzberg. Also, the managers must make sure that the work is stimulating and rewarding so that the employees are motivated to work and perform harder and better. Extrinsic Motivators Hygiene Factors Extrinsic motivators tend to represent more tangible, basic needs—i. According to Herzberg, intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators have an inverse relationship. Summary of Two Factor Theory - Herzberg, Frederick.
Herzberg stressed that there was not a linear but an inverse relationship between the two types of factors. How to Use The Model There is a two-step process to use the Two Factor Theory model to increase the motivation of your team. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. In this book, the authors discuss how the study identified twelve questions that provide a framework for determining high-performing individuals and organizations. What he found was that people who felt good about their jobs gave very different responses from the people who felt bad.
It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather, no satisfaction. He did this by interviewing over 200 professionals. The interviews delved into when the interviewees were at their most and least happiest with their jobs. While these factors are not traditional features of any job, still their role is important with regards to employee motivation and can create extra satisfaction for the employees. Managers need to focus on these factors since their absence can cause dissatisfaction and a loss of motivation for the employees. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results.
This theory suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in unpleasurable dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of Satisfaction is No satisfaction and the opposite of Dissatisfaction is No Dissatisfaction. The interview process consisted of asking the respondents to describe a work situation where they felt very happy as well as very unhappy. They enjoy belonging to a group and want to feel loved and accepted. Implications for management If the motivation-hygiene theory holds, management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Equally too, if someone is working under a poor supervisor and has relationship issues with that person, by simply giving them extra money to stay may not add to this person being motivated, as the demotivating factors are still there. Once you have done this, you can boost motivation by putting in place as many motivating factors as practical.
Overview The Two Factor Theory has had a considerable amount of practical and as well as theoretical influences. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. Thirdly, Herzberg had also contributed to the alternative approach to motivation by job enrichment. The dissatisfaction among the employees can be reduced by having appropriate policies, providing better supervision as well as better working conditions. Instead, different factors such as recognition or accomplishment-were cited as causing satisfaction and motivation. When a need is met it will no longer motivate the person, but the next need in the hierarchy will become important to that person. He noted that encouraging employees to take on extra responsibilities helps them feel trusted and valued.
Furthermore, the managers must make certain that the work is motivating and rewarding so that the employees are motivated to work and perform firmer and better. He believed that humans have two sets of needs, lower level and higher level. Through his work, Herzberg also determined that certain factors could not be a source of extreme satisifaction but could produce extreme dissatisfaction if absent. This will provide a proud feeling of having done something difficult but worthwhile. They prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty in which outcomes are the result of their effort rather than of luck. These sorts of practices mostly make the job holder accountable for not merely undertaking the tasks, but besides planning, organizing and monitoring achievements. Just the widespread use of this theory today to explain employee motivation shows that there is certain validity to it.
Rather, it asserts that all people are motivated by all of these needs in varying degrees and proportions. Need Theory is commonly often taught in management and organizational-behavior classes. Managers must realize that not providing the appropriate and expected extrinsic motivators will sow dissatisfaction and unmotivated behavior among employees. Herzberg identified a specific category within the study responses which he called 'possibility of growth'. Other Comparable Motivational Theory : This is another renowned theory in psychology, which is widely accepted and implemented in the modern world. Their existence just creates an environment for doing work.
However, when things went well it was due to my environment that provided me the opportunity to use my skills and realize my potential to the fullest. Seeing it from another perspective it could also mean that there has been not much significant research in the area of employee motivation in an organizational context since the introduction of his theory. They may look at this in terms of feelings such as self-confidence, or by accomplishing a set goal. According to the Harvard Reference System, if no date is used on an online source, you cite the year you accessed it. Tip 2: This theory is largely responsible for the practice of allowing people greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work, as a means of increasing motivation and satisfaction.
For instance, the absence of responsibility does not lead to dissatisfaction, it is just not a state of satisfaction. Intrinsic motivators include challenging work, recognition, relationships, and growth potential. This is the esteem level, which includes the need to feel competent and recognized, such as through status and level of success. While Herzberg's overall conclusions were clear and consistent, the statistics from Herzberg's study can be interpreted in many different ways in their finer details, because of the depth and layering of Herzberg's survey methodology and analysis. The analysis of the responses confirmed the proposed hypothesis, where some factors where contributors to job satisfaction, while others were not. Such things around achievement, recognition, work role, responsibility, advancement, and growth all have a part to play in effectively beginning to satisfy individuals.