Fifth, Tumin has rejected the view of Davis and Moore that the function of unequal rewards is to motivate talented individuals and allocate them to functionally most important positions. Prestige means the extent to which a person is looked up or looked down or regarded as the sort of person to be admired or emulated or, on the other hand treated with contempt. Prestige, reward involve the exercise of greater power. Difference in income leads to very unequal standard of life. In the United States, it is perfectly clear that some groups have greater status, power, and wealth than other groups. Caste systems shape people's lives in four crucial ways: â¢ Caste system largely determines occupation â¢ Caste systems largely mandate endogamy â¢ Powerful cultural beliefs underlie caste systems â¢ Caste systems limit outgroup social contacts g.
The more a person is perceived to receive rewards, the higher his status is likely to be. The two factors which are major determinants of the magnitude of the rewards attached to positions are their functional importance for the society and the relative scarcity of qualified personnel. However, physiological passage to adulthood does not necessarily coincide with the social transition of the individual from one category to the other. The Brahmins were custodian of law and the legal system which they administered was based largely on their pronouncements. He is the property of his master.
The relationship between systems of oppression and social stratification is made clear by U. Under this system vertical mobility is absolutely free. Functions of Social Stratification: For the proper functioning of society, it has to work out some mechanism by which people engaged in different occupations get different recognition. Though social conformities still exist that encourage people to choose partners within their own class, people are not as pressured to choose marriage partners based solely on those elements. Social Stratification based on Politics There is also a political stratification propounded by Gumplowiez and Ratzenhofer who believe that stratification is derived from the conquests of divergent ethnic groups. The political parties and pressure groups are the instruments in the hands of the ruling class to influence the community and to keep themselves in power. Government officials, wealthy friends, and community leaders are sponsors at hundreds of weddings and baptisms each year.
This system has led to progress and development of the country. Accepting this social standing was considered a moral duty. Susan earned her high school degree but did not go to college. For example, the rise and fall in the occupational structure of a family which leads to change in its social status within one generation is called intra-generational mobility. Social Stratification general -It refers to the ranking of individuals and groups in any givensociety.
He also argues that since different societies have different value systems, the way of attaining a high position will vary from society to society. Both the property owners and the property less can and frequently do, belong to the same states-group. Those persons who work hard and are intelligent move up in the social ladder. Keeping house, cooking, gardening, serving, and making pots etc. Because society needs manual as well as nonmanual workers. This relationship extends to the strata in a stratification system. The shift to achievement criteria followed the complex changes associated with the rise of industrialism and all that went with it.
However, social systems have to be built on the potential ides of the average individual who can be trained to occupy and to perform almost any role adequately, if not brilliantly. Free and unfree: The population of a society may be divided into freemen and slaves. The humans thus imagined them to be less different than the Cullens. Karl Max: Class and Conflict a. In the family, in the industry, in the government, in politics, everywhere tension is on the increase. No individual, rich or poor, can be blamed for social inequalities.
Esteem is one such reward. These have been replaced by more sophisticated forms of network analysis, in which power structures are explored in terms of differing relations between nodes and their quality, reciprocity, density, intensity, and durability within a network structure. Marx argued that the bourgeoisie owners give proletariats workers just enough to survive, but ultimately the workers are exploited. So we find different type of stratification. The change to adulthood is widely recognised in ceremony, custom and law.
Multidimensional Theory : Multidimensional theory is associated with the name of Max Weber felt that the influence or the effect that the behaviour of another individual or group, manifests itself in several ways. However, sociologists recognize that social stratification is a society-wide system that makes inequalities apparent. It is known that occupations are ranked high if their functions are highly important and the required personnel are very scarce. Neighborhoods often house people of the same social standing. They have acquired such areas of influence, that a new entrant can hardly proceed on his own.