From practical criticism to stylistics The teaching of literature often requires the close reading of texts, with a focus on the specific choices made by a specific text, and the effect of those choices particularly on the meaning of the text. As will be shown later this twofold application of language means in some cases presents no difficulty. Yet the distinguishing instant at which weak implicatures and the hearer or reader's conjecture of meaning diverge remains highly subjective. Or a text is in a specific genre to the extent that we are justified by the text in formulating that assumption about it. But the fact is that the signs of the latter undergo such transformations in the former that sometimes they assume a new quality imposing new significations on the signs of the language code.
It sets up a number of rules as to how to speak and write well and generally discards all kinds of deviations as being violations of the norm. That is why almost all contemporary books on grammar and general linguistics avoid problems of style or, at most, touch upon them in passing. Besides being a proposition, a thesis has to have another property: it must say something new. On the decease of his father, Mr. The most powerful expressive means of any language are phonetic. Despite the upcoming era sounding impedeous on the society, it seems promising and comfort earning. Although stylistics sometimes includes investigation of spoken language, it is usually concerned with the examination of written language, particularly literary texts.
The level-headedness of Stylistics thus risks losing out to the heady excitements of literary theory, particularly for undergraduates who seek intellectual excitement. The traditional idea of style as something properly added to thoughts contrasts with the ideas that derive from Charles Bally, the Swiss philologist, and Leo Spitzer, the Austrian literary critic. Therefore, style may be regarded as a choice of linguistic means, as deviation from the norms of language use, as recurrent features of linguistic forms and as comparisons. Secondly, a conference on Style in Language was held at Indiana University in the spring of 1958, followed by the publication of the proceedings of this conference 1960 under the editorship of Thomas Sebeok. It is therefore most important to master the received standard of the given period in the language in order to comprehend the correspondence of this or that form to the recognized norm of the period.
Now let us pass to the discussion of an issue the importance of which has to be kept clearly in mind throughout the study of stylistics, that is the dichotomy of language and speech or, to phrase the issue differently, language-as-a-system and language-in-action. Selection, or deliberate choice of language, and the ways the chosen elements are treated are the main distinctive features of individual style. The key problem in Stylistics is to work out the causal relation between style and effect, where 'effect' includes various cognitive effects such as meanings, emotions, beliefs, etc. Born 1951-03-21 March 21, 1951 age 67 , , U. The human voice can indicate subtle nuances of meaning that no other means can attain.
Thus we may distinguish the following styles within the English literary language: 1 the belles- lettres style; 2 the publicist style; 3 the newspaper style; 4 the scientific prose style; 5 the style of official documents and presumably some others. Naturally, the individual style of a writer will never be entirely independent of the literary norms and canons of the given period. Most linguists distinguish ordinary also: substantial, referential semantic and stylistic differences in meaning. Literariness, in other words, is here conceived as 'a point on a cline rather than as an absolute'. It refers to the repetition of a word or words in successive clauses in such a way that the second clause starts with the same word which marks the end of the previous clause. Here you will also find the best quotations, synonyms and word definitions to make your research paper well-formatted and your essay highly evaluated.
Birth name Russell Allen Thompkins Jr. In most cases they have corresponding neutral synonymous forms. Indeed, every sentence uttered may be characterized from two sides: whether or not the string of language forms expressed is something well-known and therefore easily understood and to some extent predictable; whether or not the string of language forms is built anew; is, as it were, an innovation made on the part of the listener to get at the meaning of the utterance and is therefore unpredictable. The term 'style' is used in linguistics to describe the choices which language makes available to a user, above and beyond the choices necessary for the simple expression of a meaning. Why is it so important to distinguish it from the expressive and neutral means of the language? It deserves at least a cursory discussion here not only because the issue has received a good deal of attention in recent publications on linguistic matters, but also because, as will be seen later, many stylistic devices stand out against the background of the distinctive features of these two above-mentioned notions. Now it should be possible to define the notion of expressive means.
The first is that there may be an over-preoccupation with one particular feature that may well minimise the significance of others that are equally important Wetherill. Stylistics in that case is regarded as a language science which deals with the results of the act of communication. The two objectives of stylistics are clearly discernible as two separate fields of investigation. Justification for bringing this problem up is that some language scholars frighten students out of studying stylistics on the ground that this subject may effectively be studied only on the basis of a perfect command of the language. Several literary critics representative of this school as well as a number of writers maintained the idea that language sometimes imposes intolerable constraints on freedom of thought. Widdowson Stylistics is a system of co-coordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfill a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. This variation sows the distinct feature of individuals or a group of people which is usually referred to as style.
The notion of style cannot be reduced to the merely practical aspect because in such a case a theoretical background for practical aims cannot be worked out. Downes recognises two distinct aspects within the category of mode and suggests that not only does it describe the relation to the medium: written, spoken, and so on, but also describes the of the text Downes. This system derives its origin from the creative spirit, and elusive though it may seem, it can nevertheless be ascertained. Various types of selection can be found: complete exclusion of an optional element, obligatory inclusion of a feature optional elsewhere, varying degrees of inclusion of a specific variant without complete elimination of competing features. Stylistics uses specialized technical terms and concepts which derive from the science of linguistics, terms like 'transitivity,' 'under-lexicalisation,' ',' and ''. Task 1 Study the definitions of style and stylistics, single out the most essential and distinctive characteristics given. To call style embellishment is the same thing as to strip it of its very essence, that is, to render unnecessary those elements which secure the manifold application of the language units.
Style can thus be indeterminate, ambiguous, metaphorical, ironic, strongly implied, weakly implied, and so on - having all the characteristics of a meaning, because style is a meaning. It is important here to call attention to the process of formation of scientific notions. The same concerns the issue of functional styles of language. Paradoxal though it may seem, many of these means, the effect of which rests on a peculiar use of the voice, are banned from the linguistic domain. Common features of style include the use of , including regional and individual or , the distribution of lengths, the use of particular language registers, and so on. These intensifying forms of the language have been fixed in grammars and dictionaries.