Just as with any type of hard work, you will not succeed unless you practice regularly. We tested the hypothesis that the membrane asymmetry is disrupted. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. These negative results that do not support a particular hypothesis should be noted in the results section, and then explained in the Discussion section. I suggest the following information in the following order: Provide a very brief summary of the most important parts of the introduction and then the results sections.
For some studies, age may be an important factor. The process will go much faster as you gain experience. What questions arose because of the major finding of your study? We programmed behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 by using E-Prime. What was the design of your research? In the Introduction, the authors should explain the rationale and background to the study. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question s your study addresses. As a result, you procrastinate.
University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. The basics Having the structure of the paper in place is a good start. One of the malpractices resulting in disrupted fluency is switching from passive voice to active and vice versa within the same paragraph, as shown in 4. The parents then had to sign and return an informed consent document. When you present tables or figures in your results section, make sure to describe at least some of the data included in these visual representations so that readers can clearly understand how the table works and what interpretations can be concluded from them. This positive feeling spills over into our work and life and has a very positive effect on our overall attitude. For example, you might speculate about an unexamined third variable that was not present in you study.
You do not need and are not recommended to follow the order of the paper to perform this type of revision. Revise your introduction as needed. The Results section should be around that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid which is so different from writing in the humanities. If not, suggest any modifications and improvements that could be made to the design.
To interest the reader, scientific authors should be direct and straightforward and present informative one-sentence summaries of the results and the approach. Getting feedback during early stages of your draft can save a lot of time. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. This means that while all other sections of the research paper use active voice, passive voice is still the most predominant in Materials and Methods sections. Why is Table 1 in most studies? A paper can only make valid conclusions and recommendations on those variables that the study has empirical data to support. Can you come up with any alternative way of interpreting them? If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? In general, provide enough how much, how long, when, etc. Also, scan the Recommended Books listed below.
In addition, the author lists different strategies for successful revision. You will have the opportunity to give your own interpretations of the results in the discussion section. How may the participants and sampling techniques not be representative of the target population? They have been selected for their relevance and highly practical nature. The authors state: i the problem they intend to address—in other terms, the research question—in the Introduction; ii what they did to answer the question in the Methods section; iii what they observed in the Results section; and iv what they think the results mean in the Discussion. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section.
The same targeted search can be done to eliminate wordiness. Discussion section In your discussion section, relate the results back to your initial hypotheses. Both approaches are appropriate in how you report your findings, but choose only one format to use. Whenever you make a claim that there is or is not a significant correlation between X and Y, the reader has to be able to verify it by looking at the appropriate test statistic. Analyzing, Interpreting and Reporting Basic Research Results © Copyright. Describe your experimental design clearly.
The goal is to present the importance of your research contribution and your findings. Include your visuals figures, tables, formulas, equations, and algorithms , and list your findings. An example paragraph from a Discussion section is given below: This study found that Nigerian teachers have a mix of beliefs regarding early literacy development, some accurate beliefs and other inaccurate beliefs. Summarize the answers to the research questions. For example, if the order of reagent addition alters the yield or the reaction pathway, this should definitely be part of your discussion. Indicate the importance of the work by stating applications, recommendations, and implications. In this post, I have shown an example.
Information about the study was sent home with all of the students at Tonganoxie Elementary School. As you can see, crucial pieces of information are missing: the speed of centrifuging your bacteria, the time, and the temperature in 1a ; the source of lymph nodes for collection in b. Everybody in Nigeria knows that schools need more materials and teachers need higher salaries Draw conclusions and make recommendations that are meaningful, unique, and relate to the results of the study. End each statistical test with a sentence or two indicating what that particular statistical result says about the hypothesis or question. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use to help organize your presentation by experiment. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future. The Sections of the Paper Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: , , , , , , , , and , which parallel the experimental process.
However, if the data analysis found that the new teaching program does not improve mathematical exam scores, then the researcher cannot conclude that the new teaching program should be implemented, because the program was found to be ineffective in improving exam scores. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research manuscript. References should be used wisely. Contents of a Research Report -- An Example Ensure your research plan is documented so that you can regularly and efficiently carry out your research activities. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? The Discussion section allows the most freedom. Use as a starting point for your outline. Particularly in Africa where high quality reading materials are oftentimes scarce, early childhood teachers need to be well trained in teaching strategies that foster oral language.