Both India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir in 1947, 1965 and 1999. But in order to safeguard Hindu interests, the Hindu Maharaja turned the decision in favor of India. India and Pakistan both , and then in April 1999 test-fired missiles in efforts to perfect delivery systems for their nuclear weapons. It is believed that the planning for the operation, by Pakistan, may have occurred about as early as the autumn of 1998. India however has countered this argument by insisting that the demographics of the region have changed with the migration of hundreds of thousands of Hindu refugees from the region. India has claimed Kashmir on the basis of the instrument of accession.
They also accuse India of perpetrating human rights abuses. Each of these states joined Pakistan or India. Both propositions now stand devalued. In March 1971, Pakistan's armed forces launched a fierce campaign to suppress the resistance movement that had emerged but encountered unexpected mass defections among East Pakistani soldiers and police. Culture has made people what they are.
They all have to be considered, even though some of them are much more likely to take place than others, based on how logical they are. The security problems associated with the Kashmir dispute have hindered the flow of foreign investment in India and Pakistan. Pakistani forces and the tribes- men gained almost one-third of the area until a cease fire was imposed by U. This… return home by the dusk. Dispute Whether the Instrument of Accession or the entry of Indian troops came first remains a major source of dispute between India and Pakistan. A guilty India avoids to face the truth.
Scenario Three would have Kashmir joining India. A simultaneous referendum was supposed to be held in Abyei on whether to become part of Southern Sudan but it has been postponed due to conflict over demarcation and residency rights. Conclusion The Kashmir dispute has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan for more than sixty years. Britain invaded in the 19th century and sold the entire Kashmir Valley for half a million rupees or three rupees per Kashmiri to the brutal repressive ruler of Jammu, the Hindu Gulab Singh. India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947 and 1965, and the Kargil War. The rulers passed anti-Muslim laws, and banned the azaan or Muslim call to prayer. New Delhi believes these resolutions are invariably adopted at the insistence of Pakistan.
After a few months of dilemma, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of a predominantly Muslim state, decided to sign an Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union in October 1947. Like many national liberation movements, they have used both guerilla warfare and terrorism as part of their strategy. China occupied eastern parts of the state in the 1950s. In 1972, the line that divided the area was renamed the Line of Control, and no longer called the ceasefire line The future, n. America at one time took up the Kashmir dispute mainly in response to the fears expressed by numan rights organizaduns. Thus, we must answer the following questions: What does it mean to have little to no conflict and what constitutes economic and social prosperity? Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession on 25 October 1947 that was accepted by the government of India on 27 October 1947. China occupies a part of Ladakh.
Download file to see previous pages factors including, social, cultural, religious and political have played a vital role in the process to exist Kashmir dispute as an unresolved problem. The conflicts themselves arose from Partition, stemming from the religious dichotomies between Hindus and Muslims. Pakistan and India became two independent sovereign States but unfortunately, Kashmir could not enjoy freedom. India forcibly occupied them through police action. Real Estate being the least of their concerns. Instead: Bhaskar contrasts a relative and developing ethical naturalism with a rational moral realism.
British policy held that the various princely states would have to accede to either Pakistan or India based on geographic location and on demographics. Moreover, plebiscite was to take place in Kashmir as a whole including Azad Kashmir. The principal rivers that flow through the region are Indus, Chenab and Jhelum. This has angered many militant groups who perceive the new policies as a betrayal of Islam. In more recent times, there has been considerable deterioration in the situation in Kashmir. The second indication became available as a result of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1948 that broke out on the issue of Kashmir.
Pakistan fails to recognize the Instrument of Accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh on October 26, 1947 ceding Kashmir to India as they believe it was signed for the sole purpose of military assistance. It can even be freed and made an independent republic but the wishes of the people of Kashmir must bear due weightage. The Pakistani military refuses to allow the Parliament to convene. His negotiation skills and his relationship with the British ensured that a large part of British India remained with India. They do not regard Pakistan as a model to be emulated. The absence of the conflict would have increased the economic growth rate of Pakistan. Abusive laws in the disputed area have led to the murder and incarceration of innocent people.
Two weeks later, the Indian army marched into Dhaka and the Pakistanis surrendered. China has an additional stake in the region, as it occupies about 20% of Kashmir and believes it to be part of Tibet, which is a part of China. India responded with heavy army clampdowns, and since then the situation has only escalated and get worse. Encouraged by China, they sent infiltrators into Kashmir in Sep. Despite terrible atrocities and flagrant human rights violations, the flames of mass rebellion are rising higher and higher and there will be no end to it. There are still plenty of other options, though, that could be more effective. Pakistan needed some kind of low cost parity with India, sending insurgents into Kashmir was the perfect policy for the Pakistani military planners.
This group now looks to the models of liberation in East Europe and Soviet Union in which non violent methods were used to achieve the dismantling of a brutal system. Both countries received only a sum of foreign investment in 2006 as compared with East Asian countries. Many more have fled to other parts of India and Pakistan to escape the militant violence. Himalayas and Karakuram are its main mountain ranges. In addition, some Kashmiris seek a third option — independence — which neither India nor Pakistan is prepared to contemplate.