The younger elements advocated militant nationalism and active participation in the nationalist movement. Under the leadership of Rashbehari Basu, Jatindranath Mukherjee, Narendranath Bhattacherjee Manabendranath Roy the revolutionary preparations were going on secretly. As a result of this proclamation of fatwa, hundreds of thousands people returned the titles and stopped sending their children to government schools and colleges. This was the end of institution of khilafat. The leaders of the Khilafat Movement joined hands with Indian National Congress for the upcoming Non-cooperation Movement. Under the hypnotism of Mr.
The movement later gave and impetus to the struggle for the independence and for a separate homeland for the Muslims. The leaders of the two met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country wide agitation under the leadership of Mr. Mohammad Ali put forward the demands of the Khilafat Movement in a speech delivered at Paris on March 21, 1920 by declaring: âThe Khilafat shall not be dismembered but that the Khalifa Shall have sufficient temporal power for the defence of the Faith, that in the Island of Arabia there shall be exclusive, Muslim control without mandate or protection and that the Khalifa shall remain as heretofore the warden of the Holy places. Now khalifa Abdul Majeed had temporal powers and was exiled on March 3 rd 1924. Many nationalists had felt that the non-cooperation movement should not have been stopped due to isolated incidents of violence, and most nationalists, while retaining confidence in Gandhi, were discouraged. The abolition of Khilafat by Kamal Ataturk was a serious blow on Khilafat movement in the sub-continent and he exiled Sultan Abdul Majeed, a helpless Caliph and abolished Khilafat as an institution, due to this all agitational activities came to an end in the Sub-continent. It won the support of Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress.
In the Central Legislature out of 105 elected seats as many as 48 seats were obtained by Swarajya Party. Gandhiji gave call for an all-India hartal which was eminently successful all over India but not peaceful everywhere. On the contrary as members of the legislatures they could criticise the actions of the government and put pressure on them to stop the policy of repression. In his struggle against the racist authorities of South Africa, Gandhi evolved the technique of Satyagraha based on truth and nonviolence. Hippies came from all different backgrounds but all were young and most came from wealthy families. In the same year 1921 the Congress went one step forward and in its Allahabad session decided not only to continue the non-violent non-co-operation with all its might but also to start civil disobedience.
A wave of anger swept across the Muslin World and the Indian Muslims rose against the British Government. Some section of Muslims started to see the futility of Swaraj and fresh interest was awakened in the Muslim League which had been stagnant since 1918. In August 1921, they revolted against Hindu landlords whose treatment was very brutal with them. This caused a widespread resentment among the Indian Muslims. Similarly there was an armed clash with another group near Chandernagore and one of the revolutionaries died and the rest had been taken prisoners.
Government wanted to keep them out of non-cooperation, therefore, section 144 was imposed in Moplah dominated area. Raja- gopalachari, Saifuddin Kitchlew, Vallabhbhai Patel, Asaf Ali, T. Conclusion: The Khilafat movement was started to safeguard the Khilafat in Turkey, an issue which essentially belonged to the Muslims. In 1920 the Ali Brothers produced the Khilafat Manifesto. Benoy shot both of them. The Afghan authorities did not allow them to cross the border. First session of khilafat conference was held in Delhi in 1919 and Muslims were asked not to participate in victory celebration, to boycott British goods and start a non-co-operation movement.
The following points were included in it: 1. He exposed these two men, dethroned Islam from the pedestal of the official state religion and transformed Turkey into a secular state. The Khilafat leadership fragmented on different political lines. Gandhiji was at first in favour of giving it a trial but changed his mind later. · The Khilafat Movement effectively demonstrated the religious enthusiasm of the Muslims to the British.
There was an impression that King of Afghanistan would welcome them. In the World War I, the Ottoman Empire had sided the Central Powers and the result of this war was the defeat of the Central Powers. Later, however, a militant trend emerged, demanding an active agitation such as stopping all cooperation with the British. It was taken up by Mr. In 1921, when the Khilafat agitation was at its peak, Ali again sent a wire to the Amir urging him not to enter into any agreement with the Brits. Their natural sympathy lie with the Sultan of Turkey as their Caliph or religious head but as British subjects they were to be loyal to the British throne.
The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920. Indian Muslims were stunned by this decision. Dissenting decision of some scholars: The Muslim leaders pressurized M. In the Convocation of the Calcutta University in 1932 Governor Stanley Jackson was shot at by Bina Das but as her shot missed the aim, Jackson was saved. It adversely affected the Khilafat Movement which thought to be integral part of movement. He was helped by Jamaluddin Afghani, an Arab born in Afghanistan in 1838.