After gaining the confidence of his master, Qutb-ud-din, he rose to become a provincial governor. She thrived in impressing her father with her skills and perseverance in carrying out her tasks and duties. Razia will be remembered in history for her indomitable spirit and her wise and just qualities. She won against not by engaging in a war but by diplomacy. Although the Delhi sultanate regained control of most of northern India in the early sixteenth century, it was finally destroyed by Babur, founder of the Mughal empire, in 1526. Due to this act of Razia, the rebels began to distrust each other.
Qutb-ud-din is best remembered for his destruction of Hindu and Jain temples and for building mosques. The grave is bounded on all factors by unattractive residential buildings. A battle between Razia and Altunia ensued, with the result that Yaqut was killed and Razia taken prisoner. In 1211 Shah and Iltutmish met on the plain of Bagh-i-Jud near Delhi where the former was defeated by Iltutmish who then became third ruler of Delhi Sultanate. Being a Sultan, against the custom, she showed her face in the public and rode like that on the elephant while fighting in the battles when she was the chief of the army. The Spanish court of Cordoba as well as the Fatimid court in Cairo employed Mamluke bodyguards. Her tolerance of Hinduism would later bring her criticism from Muslim historians.
According to some accounts, Razia and Yaqut were lovers; other sources simply identify them as close confidants. She did this by giving the higher posts in the empire to the non-Turkish Muslims. But the sultana miscounted the consequences that a special relationship with one of her Assyrian slaves, Jamal Uddin Yaqut, would have for her reign. Though a second grave accompanies Razia's, the identity of the occupant is unknown. Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan ran the government for all practical purposes while the so-called ruler immersed himself in pursuit of pleasures. However, the second of her brothers, Muizuddin Bahram Shah, usurped the throne. Ibn Fadlun gives a graphic picture of the deplorable conditions in the Viking slave ships.
The Delhi Sultanate In 1192 A. It might be illustrative to look up documentation from his time. He proved himself to be not only a first class soldier but an outstanding statesman as well. In any case, before long she had aroused the jealousy of the Muslim nobility by the favoritism she displayed toward Yaqut. Her father had come to Delhi as a slave working under Qutb-ud-din. Bahram, for his part, would later be dethroned for incompetence.
It was from the ranks of these Mamlukes that the 13 th century dynasties of India and Egypt emerged. And a life and death search to reunite with her one true love. After Altunia and Razia undertook to take back the sultanate from Bahram through battle, both Razia and her husband—neither one more than 30 years of age—were both killed on October 14, 1240 some sources say October 13. Eventually, the governor of Bhatinda, a childhood friend named Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, rebelled, refusing any longer to accept Razia's authority. Zakaria believes that Altunia was deeply in love with Razia, but that he was repeatedly rebuffed by her aloofness. Two later historians, Isami and Barani, attempted to reconstruct the facts from family accounts Isami or independent analysis Barani.
A battle between Razia and Altunia ensued, with the result that Yaqut was killed and Razia considered prisoner. Women throughout the ages would invoke her name in defense of their rights and her name would forever be inscribed indelibly in the lyrics and folklore of the vast subcontinent of India and Pakistan and in the languages of distant lands in all continents. She was the one who led the army during the battles on her horse. Meanwhile modern-day encroachers have placed plastic sheets around the tomb and started to live in it, turning it into an urban ghetto. Minhaj's point of view is therefore suspect given that he was unlikely to have included details in his account that would have brought embarrassment to his patron. Although Minhaj's history of the times is considered to be among the most reliable sources of information about Razia, Mihaj spent the last years of his life in the service of Balban, who had brought an end to Razia's rule.
Altumish therefore nominated his daughter to be his successor, against the advice of some of his courtiers and kadis. Crumbling and covered by dust and grime, the grave has clearly suffered the ravages of your energy. She then brought them to her side. The history of the Mamlukes illustrates this observation. According to Zakaria, it was because Minhaj shared the attitude of the nobles and of his patron Balban that he portrayed her in his writings as a coward—for example, saying that she met her death hiding in a corner where she was killed by Hindu robbers—in the final battle with Balban that claimed her life. Educated and with a strong interest in politics, she became her father's regent during his campaigns.
Rumors about her close relationship with an Ethiopian slave, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, caused her downfall. Nasiruddin Mahmud became the governor of Bengal and was bestowed with the title of Malik-us-Sharq Lord of the East by his father. All her subjects were happy with her. He was succeeded by Aram Shah. At the time of Iltutmish's death in 1236, he had been in power for 26 years. As she slept, the farmer noticed that his guest, who was dressed like a man, wore a garment embroidered in gold. Meanwhile, Razia's brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah, acquired usurped the throne.
Hindu works in the sciences, philosophy, astronomy, and literature were reportedly studied in schools and colleges. She tried to regain her power with help of her husband Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, a chief of Bathinda, but both of them were killed. Razia's Legacy Razia is said to have remarked that the nature of religious beliefs was more important than its parts, and that even the Islamic prophet Muhammad spoke against overburdening the non-Muslims. Every other chronicle of the times is based on Minhaj's history. She was very brave, a good administrator and skilled. But the sultana miscounted the consequences that a special relationship with one of her Assyrian slaves, Jamal Uddin Yaqut, would have for her reign.