It was one of the first civilizations to roam the earth. This was a glorious period for Ur, as the excavations suggest from the burial sites, huge amount of gold, silver and bronze has been found. Temples lost their economic privileges and became landowners like many others; and like all, subject to royal taxes. Two of the greatest civilizations that will be elaborated on this assignment are the Egypt Civilization and the Sumerian Civilization. Southern Mesopotamia is made up of marshy areas and wide, flat, barren plains. Then the heartland of Akkad and Sumer itself began to break away, with the rulers of the city-states proclaiming their independence. Most famously, Ur-Nammu built a series of ziqqurats, pyramid-like structures which soared over the cities that housed them indeed, some scholars believe they were inspired by the great Pyramids of , though they were not royal tombs but the final stage in a long history of Sumerian temple architecture going back thousands of years.
The Babylonians made an astronomical calculation in the base 60 system inherited by Sumerians. Babylon again had a native dynasty on her throne, and the most famous of these kings was Nebuchadrezzar I c. Most historians seem to believe the primary reasons were food- a. The use of water and the timing of flood seasons gave rise to a number of technological innovations, such as the calendar. However, particular political forms varied. As we have read above in the Uruk culture, the temples controlled production of surplus in the village.
Sargon of Akkad To the north-west of the Sumerian heartland lay the region later known as Akkad, inhabited by a Semitic people. Urban Decay Some have suggested that urban sprawl is driven by consumer preference; people prefer to live in lower density, quieter, more private communities that they perceive as safer and more relaxed than urban neighborhoods. No longer are corporations in competition solely with corporations within its own borders. Their writing system, social structure and classes and way of leadership all differed from Mesopotamia. Later, the discovery of bronze, then iron gradually replaced these. The Formation of Cities Why did cities form in the first place? Marriages across the ruling classes of these societies offer one way to conceptualize the world.
It draws on human ecology theories, which compared the city to an ecosystem, with processes of adaptation and assimilation. The invention of agriculture made it possible for humans to stay in the same place for a longer period of time without depending on hunting. Early cities also arose in the Indus Valley and ancient China. Each farmer was allowed a certain amount of water, which was diverted from the canal into an irrigation ditch. Capital cities: Urban planning and spiritual dimensions: Proceedings of the symposium held on May 27-29, 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Article, City, Education 1403 Words 4 Pages culture, set-up, etc.
The organizational necessity was the result of innovation, communication, and the movement of populations. Long wars helped build Assyria into a warrior society, supported by landed nobility, which supplied horses to the military. That great country did have temples, palaces, and cemeteries, often of monumental proportions, as early as the fourth and third millennia, but its capitals seem to have lacked remarkable size and have left little evidence either of intellectual life or of commercial activity. The paper stresses that the Chaldean tribal groups, a loosely connected with prominent chieftains opposing urbanization, shifted allegiance according to the distribution of military strength, refused to pay taxes or to render services to the government, waylaid caravans and to attack and plunder settlements and small cities. But… 1303 Words 6 Pages Introduction Urbanization and growth go with each other: no country has ever reached a great economy without a significant population shift into cities. Cities may have held other advantages, too.
Whitehouse 1977:31 pointed out: that there were towns in the third millennium B. Finally, the religious sphere was not untouched. In particular, cities are shaped by the real estate interests of people whose properties gain value when cities grow. Mesopotamia was more productive of technological improvements, because their environment was more difficult to manage than the Nile valley. Jericho, situated in a large oasis, consisted of 8 to10 acres of mud-brick homes surrounded by substantial walls. Astronomy and astrology: The concept of Astrology was developed during the Sumerian period, where even everyday incidents had a spiritual meaning.
It most be noted that agricultural surplus provided the conditions for sedentism for a tribe, when the tribes had settled at a place for a long time, they started associating them with the territory. Agriculture was extremely important to nourish their growing societies and to survive. With Assyria they signed a treaty dividing Mesopotamia between the two powers. Schubert October 16, 2013 Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia have many similarities and differences related to geography, government, culture, religion and resources. Sumerian Origin What is certain, however, is that, for whatever reason, the Urban Revolution began in Mesopotamia and, it seems certain, in the region of Sumer.
It had a population of some 2,500 people. Initially, pictograms were used, followed by cuneiform and then ideograms. Northern Kuwait formed part of ancient Mesopotamia and there is evidence of settlement during the Ubaid prehistoric period. Urbanization has a crucial role to keep up growth in developing countries, and it provides other benefits as well. Conclusion We might select any of the salient points of these three areas and see them replicated in some form across the others.