A good example of a radial drainage pattern is provided by the rivers originating from the Amarkantak mountain. Grading Land grading also termed precision land forming is the reshaping of the surface of land with tractors and scrapers to planned grades. In some cases, particularly where deep fill has been made, it may be necessary to cut and fill again, using tractors and scrapers to eliminate depressions and reverse surface grades. Eventually the system will stabilize. Rectangular Drainage Pattern: Rectangular drainage system develops on rocks that are of about uniform resistance to erosion, but which have two direction of joining at approximately right angles.
Originally, when the streams flow in the direction of the slope of the land, or as a consequence of the slope such streams are called the consequent streams. The present drainage pattern has been superimposed on the older rocks as an inheritance from the vanished cover. This type of drainage is called superimposed drainage. Pinnate Drainage Pattern : Pinnate pattern is developed in a narrow valley flanked by steep ranges. The Parallel Drainage Pattern: This drainage pattern comprises a large number of rivers, which flow parallel to each other and follow the slope of the region.
Deranged pattern: This is an uncoordinated pattern of drainage characteristic of a region recently vacated by an ice-sheet. Trellis drainages build up in folded topography. Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. The Damodar, the Subarnarekha, the Chambal, the Banas and the rivers flowing at the Rewa Plateau present some good examples of superimposed drainage. Superimposed, Epigenetic Discordant or Superinduced Drainage: It is formed when a stream with a course originally established on a cover of rock now removed by erosion, so that the stream or drainage system is independent of the newly exposed rocks and structures. Fewer drainage channels will develop where the surface is flat and the soil infiltration is high because the water will soak into the surface. It tends to develop on the flanks of a dome or a volcanic cone.
The field should be farmed in the direction of the greatest slope. Where the channel grade is less than 0. The Indus, Satluj, Ganga, Sarju Kali , Arun a tributary of Kosi , Tista and Brahmaputra are some of the important antecedent rivers, originating from beyond the Greater Himalayas. Down-turned folds called synclines form valleys in which resides the main channel of the stream. Annular Pattern: In this drainage pattern, the subsequent streams follow curving or arcuate courses prior to joining the consequent stream.
Their shape or pattern develops in response to the local topography and subsurface geology. A parallel pattern also develops in regions of parallel, elongate landforms like outcropping resistant rock bands. During the last ice age, the topsoil was scraped off, leaving mostly bare rock. The depression formed at the top of Raigarh Dome in the Lower Chambal Basin has given birth to centripetal drainage pattern. Diversion ditches are located at the base of a slope to intercept and carry surface flow to an outlet. Parallel drainage pattern has also developed on the Eastern Coastal Plains of India. The cross section of the W ditch system is similar to that of the single ditch, except that if farm machinery is not expected to cross the ditch the side slopes toward the field should be 8 to 1 and those on the crowned section 4 to 1.
If the soil has only a moderate infiltration capacity and a small amount of precipitation strikes the surface over a given period of time, the water will likely soak in rather than evaporate away. In , drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the , , and in a particular. Movement of the surface due to faulting off-sets the direction of the stream. The western coastal plains of India represent several examples of parallel drainage patterns where the streams after taking their sources from the western flanks of the Western Ghats drain in straight courses towards west to empty into the Arabian Sea. Article shared by Most of the rivers originate in the mountains.
The stream length in each order increases exponentially with increasing stream order. Types of drainage patterns found in India 1. The tributaries join the main stream in 'Boat hook bends' which point upstream. Tributaries join the main stream at nearly right angles. A surface drainage system consists of shallow ditches and should include land smoothing or land grading.
Random The random ditch pattern is adapted to slowly permeable soils having depressional areas that are too large to be eliminated by land smoothing or grading. The joints are usually less opposing to erosion than the bulk rock so erosion tends to preferentially open the joints and streams eventually develop along the joints. Rectangular drainage patterns are rare in Canada. The local upland situated to the south-west of Ranchi city has given birth to radial drainage pattern wherein the South Koel, the Subarnarekha, the Kanchi and the Karo rivers take their sources and radiate in different directions. Field ditches should extend through most of the depressions, as shown in , to assure complete drainage, and they should follow the natural slope of the land in accordance with Illinois drainage law.
The term dendritic, coined by I. Deranged Pattern This is an uncoordinated pattern of drainage characteristic of a region recently vacated by an ice-sheet. The radical pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure. Either before or after the final land smoothing operation, chisel fields to loosen the cut surfaces and to blend the fill material with the underlying soil. Angular drainage patterns form where bedrock joints and faults intersect at more acute angles than rectangular drainage patterns. Down-turned folds called synclines form valleys in which exists in the main channel of the stream. Drainage system is the removal process of a surface water and subsurface water from any area whether it is the natural or artificial removal process.