Minimises total cost where the cost of delays and cost of resources required to carry out the tasks can be measured. These matters are further discussed in Chapter 6 on projects and procurement. Ideally, of course, strategic plans are made before the start of an operation and, by following them, the operation is successfully concluded. Event Chain Methodology Event chain methodology considers unexpected problems that can disrupt your network. For safety this is put in a box hidden under the bed. What is the best estimate for the time to completion? The total increase in cost due to saving time will be Rs 47. After all, the future prosperity of the organisation probably depends on its successful completion.
Schedule Network Analysis The schedule network is a graphical display from left to right across a page of all logical interrelationships between elements of work — in chronological order, from initial planning through to project closure. Here dummy activity d 1 has been shown by a dotted line to show that activity b has been completed. In the short term, which may be three to six months or in some cases more, there should be the full expansion of detail with progressively less from there on. The greatest virtue of the approach, other than the time saving, is that the functions discuss the problems of interaction directly with each other, rather than through the third party of the planning engineer, and are usually more co-operative in solving them at the senior level. There is more opportunity then for alternative approaches - the degree of freedom diminishes as the project proceeds - and it will certainly be cheaper than trying to gain the same amount of time later in the project. The schedule network analysis typically will include all elements from the pre-planning stages through all ongoing processes that may take place during the active period, and to any and all portions of the project from start to finish. It is preferable to draw the network in stages, encouraging class participation.
Unfortunately there are two separate components to risk: that aspect which can be quantitatively assessed and that which is subjective assessment. Next, we crash activity h from 5 to 4 weeks at a cost of Rs 300 per week; this further reduces the length of the critical path by another week, from 34. Which are the critical activities or tasks in the project which could delay the entire project if they were not completed on time? The project objectives and product characteristics may be defmed and achieved progressively during the course of the project. Since it is known that just over 95%. Limitations of Network Techniques : Network techniques have following limitations: i Network technique is simply a tool to help the management; hence its effectiveness depends on how well it is used by the management. Kelly of Remington Rand, circa 1957. This will require a thorough understanding of the customer's total view of the project and its subsequent operation or use.
A full project team will be made up as in Fig. Tools Project management is a challenging task with many complex responsibilities. The higher the standard deviation, the greater the uncertainty that the project will be completed on the due date. However, in most of industry, which is relatively stable and dealing with that which is knowable, risks tend to be small, known and accepted as part of the task of management. It is extremely rare for only one acceptable policy to be formulated; further, it is equally true that almost any policy can be improved. Draw lines to show which tasks have to be done in sequence. If the project has to be finished earlier than planned, what is the best way to do this at the least cost? Even with well tried technology there is still an element of uncertainty, particularly if the application is novel.
It is never a static document and it forms the base against which all progress in the project is measured. The transfer of the risk to someone who is more capable of dealing with the problem, e. Thus, by the end of week 8, the whole of activity A and two-thirds of activity B should be complete. It will take 11 weeks along activities 1-2, 2-3 and 3-4. The first step in drawing a project graph is to understand the sequential relationship between various activities in the project.
In such a scheme the qualities demanded of a supplier are listed and a weight indicating the importance of each quality to the project is assigned to each. If this is satisfactory, then no further action is necessary at this stage. Some project costing systems maintain three sets of figures: 1 the budget; 2 committed costs; 3 actual costs. It will often be found that designers, engineers and project planners need to have discussions with suppliers. This reduces the project duration or the length of the critical path from 36. However, three men may not show the same reduction in performance time, and a fourth man may well slow up 1 2 3 Number of men 4 Fig.
Examining the project 61 Activities can be considered to be of two kinds: 1 'do' activities, where time is consumed in a task which, in itself, advances the project; and 2 'ancillary' activities, where time is consumed in tasks which support 'do' activities. Such change is likely to cross conventional functional boundaries and may well be concerned with activities outside those usually found within the organisation, though this last is not true of a project-centred organisation. The problem of interrelationships Consider activity F in Fig. More sophisticated techniques may be developed when it is necessary to be more accurate. Younger readers will not be able to realise the problems early that is to say 1960s! For each task, show the earliest start date, estimated length of time it will take, and whether it is parallel or sequential. Total float is considered as a primary type of float. Thus to the question: 'Is activity X complete? Activity F should be complete and, in fact, is not started.
A distant location forces the setLevel 1 Project manager Level 2 Project accountant Project co-ordinator s Engineer s Level 3 Assistant accountants Project plarmers Network analysts Level 4 Procurement officer h I Assistant planning analysts Fig. To reduce this time, therefore, will increase the risk, and this decision must be squarely put to management for acceptance or rejection. Management is responsible for creating an environment for quality The creation of an environment for quality is the responsibility of the management of both the parent organisation and the project organisation and entails: Projects and quality 37 setting quality objectives which can be quantified; providing an organisational structure and support which is conducive to meeting quality objectives; providing for quality assessments and follow-up; involving all personnel in achieving quality. The performance of any team is related to the opportunities offered to the team members for personal involvement, satisfaction and development and will have significant effects on the quality and success of the project. However at Event 2 we have to evaluate 2 activities, 2-3 and 2-4. Since 11 wks is larger than 10 wks, we select it as the Earliest Start at Event 4. This will certainly be so if the task owner is external to the parent organisation.
The quality management function in the parent organisation may be reluctant to change its standard approaches but must be persuaded to do so, where necessary, if the quality system is to be usable by the project team. The first deals with the managerial aspects of project management, the second, which is a condensation of the previous text Critical Path Analysis and other Project Network Techniques, with project management techniques. Sadly, unless the implications have been properly digested, and the effect of top management interest realised, the extension will be far from successful. These issues are summarised in Table 3. Meaning of Network Technique: Network technique is a technique for planning, scheduling programming and controlling the progress of projects. Freedom to make appropriate decisions must be given to those who will be held responsible for performance and, if these decisions are to be meaningful in a larger context, then 22 Project management and project network techniques it is imperative that this larger context be known. This type of organisational form is shown in Fig.