The abundance of street life, Mrs. It is specifically a reaction to the mistakes of urban renewal and the systematic destruction of potentially healthy cities by those mistakes. For example, the first bit of analysis in the book directly tackles the problem of sidewalk safety, using it as a springboard into a section about the uses and nature of sidewalks and street life, why they succeed, and why they fail. Ont May 4, 1916 — April 25, 2006 was an American-born Canadian writer and activist with primary interest in communities and urban planning and decay. Nor is Jacobs a back-to-the-land nut. . Note: Jacobs wrote this book in 1959, and much has changed in Chicago.
A healthy city is not, for her, a work of art, consciously designed. Her third argument was about buildings and their ages. But when you look at the projects that Moses and his ilk built—high-rise buildings surrounded by lawns, with no shops, restaurants, or anything else to attract people to street level—you realize how totally out of touch they were. Moreover, self-appointed public characters such as storekeepers enhance the social structure of sidewalk life by learning the news at retail and spreading it. It remains sensible, knowledgeable, readable, and indispensable. Jacobs looks to inner- cities for her main observations. The variety of small commercial establishments creates uses for people.
The factors that contribute to decay and the creation of a slum are in place and are operative years before the area is officially declared a slum. Entire neighborhoods were torn apart, pulling apart existing social orders, and put into a new neighborhood completely lacking in diversity in terms of businesses, dwelling types, and people. The North End and the Back-of-the-Yards district are not holding their young people, who tend to move to the suburbs as soon as they have children to raise. I would have loved a follow-up analysis of the impact of this book and the changes in urban planning in the subsequent fifty years. Not shaped by free choice, they are not organic communities; and even if they escape being unsafe, like the projects, they foster that constant specter of modern life: isolation.
In converting to outright urban use, Euclid Avenue has converted to homogeneity: office buildings again, and again a chaos of shouted, but superficial, differences. Effective districts should therefore exist to represent streets to the city. In prose of outstanding immediacy, Jane Jacobs writes about what makes streets safe or unsafe; about what constitutes a neighborhood, and what function it serves within the larger organism of the city; about why some neighborhoods remain impoverished while others regenerate themselves. Another analysis example: at the time Jacobs was writing, housing projects were very much in style, and those projects tended to be income-sorted. In real life, cause and effect are not so simple. Naturally I enjoyed the chapter about the automobile, and found her commentary interesting.
Kids growing up in this environment feel a sense of civic engagement and helpfulness, and are accountable and supervised by a multitude of friendly and known adults. She was antagonistic towards contemporary city planning, and for good reason: their actions inevitably led to a reduction in neighborhood diversity, one of Jabobs' key elements for a successful city neighborhood. She doesn't spend time extolling cities over other arrangements of people, and indeed largely refrains from commenting on non-city structures except where they become failed cities. I was bitterly amused by one of the problems she states that slums need to overcome - blacklisting now known as redlining by mortgage lenders. Or whatever people used in the ancient times of 1958 instead of PowerPoint.
The purpose of such reflection is not to come up with the solution, the blueprint, the guarantee of an ideal future. It's eminently readable and isn't that a pleasure in a book of this kind , but also incredibly insightful and of course I love how it resonates so brilliantly with my experience living in many different cities while toppling most accepted planning theory. A street must have a clear separation between public and private, watchful eyes of storekeepers, residents and those passing by and a sidewalk must have users on it fairly continuously. The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry, p. City Planning and Urban Realities American Intellectuals have begun to rediscover the city.
But visibility is not the only measure of vitality, and areas that are uninteresting to the visitor may be quite vital to the people who live in them. Such thinking has yet to diffuse into planning practise, though, as far as I know. Again a good example would be Iran. Например, думать в категориях не событий, а процессов. She stated that buildings should vary in their age in order to accommodate different people and business based on the affordability. Fear also keeps and safety. This is the most talked-about problem in New York City today.
Many of the ideas behind the new urban critique have come from the writings of Jane Jacobs, an associate editor of Architectural Forum. This connection allows residents in different neighborhoods to interact more with each other thus leading to an active community. Self destruction of outstanding successful districts occurs by ousting less affluent dwellers and businesses, to replace them with more affluent or profitable ones, probably as the multiplication of those already existing in that district. I'm partly an easy target, since I'm intellectually inclined to like cities due to the advantages density has for efficiency and environmental impact, but she also tackles the less conscious and more emotional reactions concisely and effectively. Even so, the future of the American city is not going to be determined by the life or death of the North Ends and the Greenwich Villages. The E-mail message field is required. I wonder if it had been published in this decade, would she be allowed to draw so many conclusions based almost entirely on personal observation and opinion.