Each time the stress on the infant is ramped up. As you can see the strange situation is designed to get more strange for the infant as it goes on. By defining specific types of attachment styles, Mary Ainsworth was able to determine the best parenting styles as well as possible difficulties a particular child may face later on in life. Zimbardo after the abrupt end of the experiment drew a few conclusions. Lines 15-19 reveal the true purpose of poetry. Also, despite its manifest strengths, the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behavior. A stranger is introduced into the environment and interacts with the child, and then the parent leaves the room.
And ape mothers—unlike many human mothers—must raise their kids without helpers. Children may both avoid or resist the parent. Mothers' attachment status as determined by the Adult Attachment Interview predicts their 6-year-olds' reunion responses: A study conducted in Japan. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. Some researchers believe that the lack of a clear attachment pattern is likely linked to inconsistent behavior from caregivers. If this point were to be validated, it would undermine a key characteristic of the secure attachment style.
These children also tend to be more independent, perform better in school, have successful social relationships, and experience less depression and anxiety. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. Tomlinson M, Cooper P, Murray L. In some cases, the child might passively reject the parent by refusing comfort, or may openly display direct toward the parent. The strange situation Ainsworth based her test on one of the most basic human emotions: fear.
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali. Firstly, infants seek to be close to the mother — proximity — especially when they feel threatened by something. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers. The temperature was maintained in the room as the change in temperature would have brought fluctuations in the result. Then, the mother came back in.
He is an enemy who is a friend, and that is what leads to a strange meeting. Its objective is to study the interaction that a mother or an adult stranger maintains with the child in an unfamiliar environment. Their actions and responses to caregivers are often a mix of behaviors, including avoidance or resistance. The overall consistency in attachment types leads to the conclusion that there may be universal characteristics that underpin infant-caregiver interactions. A: Insecure Avoidant Insecure avoidant children do not orientate to their attachment figure while investigating the environment.
Examined cross cultural differences between attachment behaviours using a meta analysis. George eds , Attachment disorganization. Attachment patterns in south Germany. A structural modeling approach to the study of attachment and strange situation behaviors. This paper will provide a review of a study conducted by psychologist Mary Ainsworth in which she explored different aspects of mother and infant attachments. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. Social support processes: Mediators of attachment state of mind and adjustment in later late adolescence.
For example, Helen MacDonald et al 2008 have found a correlation between Type D attachment and the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Focusing just on maternal sensitivity when trying to explain why children have different attachment types is, therefore, a reductionist approach. Mary Ainsworth 1913-1999 devised an experiment known as the Strange Situation in order to investigate differences in attachment styles in infants age 12-18 months. Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange situation.
Research has suggested that this attachment style might be a result of abusive or neglectful caregivers. Environmental stressors—like poor nutrition—may therefore be responsible for high rates of insecure attachment among some populations like impoverished Chilean children, see below. International studies of the Strange Situation In studies recognizing three attachment classifications secure, avoidant-insecure, and resistant-insecure , about 21% of American infants have been classified as avoidant-insecure, 65% as secure, and 14% as resistant-insecure. Stress could also make it difficult for a child to select the most appropriate, healthy response to being separated from, and reunited with, his mother Waters and Valenzuela 1999. After this point, the parent exits, leaving the child alone. Infants classified as anxious-avoidant A represented a puzzle in the early 1970s.
The concept of attachment styles grew out the attachment theory and research that emerged throughout the 1960s and 1970s. In this Hell, there is relief, no blood, no guns thumped or… made moan. There are ethical issues as 90% of the trials had to be stopped because of how distressed the children became. One criticism of the Strange Situation procedure is that it has focused almost exclusively on the mother-infant bond. In theory, children learn that their caregivers will not respond to their emotional needs.