These social causes became one of the major catalysts in the fall of the Roman Empire. The great philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius probably died from this plague. Orestes was soon forced to flee Pavia when Odoacer's army broke through the city walls and ravaged the city. But even here this is not where the political continuity ended The a microstate in Europe is the sole remaining polity of the , having been created out of the counties of Vaduz and Schellenburg in 1719 as a sovereign fief for the wealthy Austrian. The very aspects that made it so successful were the ones that caused its collapse. In 468, at vast expense, the Eastern empire assembled an enormous force to help the West retake the Diocese of Africa. The Romans regained , and Rome again received a grain supply from Africa.
Ricimer then quarreled with Anthemius, and besieged him in Rome, which surrendered in July 472 after more months of starvation. Meanwhile, groups such as the Arabs and Saracens of India and Spain sat in anger and contempt. Historians point out that whatever the causes were, the eastern, Byzantine part of the empire, centred on Constantinople, survived for nearly 1,000 years after the fall of Rome. As the amount of gold used in coins decreased, the coins became less valuable. With its economy faltering and its commercial and agricultural production in decline, the Empire began to lose its grip on Europe. Emperors like Caligula and Nero became infamous for wasting money on lavish parties where guests drank and ate until they became sick.
In 410, the Roman civitates of Britannia rebelled against Constantine and evicted his officials. The north-eastern approaches to Italy were never effectively garrisoned again. The Vandals conquered Sicily, and their fleet became a constant danger to Roman sea trade and to the coasts and islands of the western Mediterranean. Public Health: Cause Many of the citizens of the Roman Empire were poor or unemployed and living on the streets and were constantly in contact with hundreds of diseases. Military spending left little money left for the citizens of Rome due to the fact that the army was extreamly unreliable and therefore very expensive. In this way, they began to lose territories that they could not maintain with their legions. Funds earmarked for maintaining the militia left very few resources for other vital activities, such as providing public housing, maintaining quality roads, and improving aqueducts.
With the limited communications of the time, both the European and the Eastern frontiers needed the attention of their own supreme commanders. The Western barbarians lost much of these higher cultural practices, but their redevelopment in the by polities aware of the Roman achievement formed the basis for the later development of Europe. In January 414 Roman naval forces blockaded Ataulf in , where he married Galla Placidia. Many people stopped using coins and began to barter to get what they needed. The emperors were forced to raise taxes frequently which in turn led again to increased inflation. His small escort of barbarians was led by Sarus, who rebelled. They spent a year moving slowly to , defeating Boniface.
The Roman Empire came after the era of The Roman Republic. The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity. It was led by Stilicho's own creature, one. With such a vast territory to govern, the empire faced an administrative and logistical nightmare. Official cruelty, supporting extortion and corruption, may also have become more commonplace. The rich senatorial aristocrats in Rome itself became increasingly influential during the fifth century; they supported armed strength in theory, but did not wish to pay for it or to offer their own workers as army recruits.
The military spending also increased dramatically due to the empire having to constantly defend its borders from foreigners. Gratian's armies were distracted by Germanic invasions across the Rhine. In Roman constitutional theory, the Empire was still simply united under one emperor, implying no abandonment of territorial claims. He may also have intended to give Alaric a senior official position and send him against the rebels in Gaul. The internal factors included the selfish interests of Roman emperors, socio-economic problems, and political corruption prevalent in the area. For example, when Bishop Ambrose threatened to withhold the sacraments, did the penance the Bishop assigned him.
Urban Decay: Effect As the empire became weaker and weaker foreign invaders came from the surrounding countries and destroyed the empire completely. But, they did get involved in many wars. At a lower level within the army, connecting the aristocrats at the top with the private soldiers, a large number of were well-rewarded, literate, and responsible for training, discipline, administration, and in battle. Although Constantius rebuilt the western field army to some extent — the gives a list of the units of the western field army at this time—he did so only by replacing half of its units vanished in the wars since 395 by re-graded barbarians, and by garrison troops removed from the frontier. Because of the long process, different historians have placed an end date at many different points on a continuum.
Stilicho paid Alaric four thousand pounds of gold nevertheless. In addition to this, the continuous interaction of people with the coliseum, where contact with dead bodies and blood were frequent, spread a lot of diseases. Some of the reasons that historians give for the fall of the western Roman Empire include barbarian migration and invasion, economic problems, the growing power of the Eastern Empire, overexpansion and military overspending, political corruption and instability, the rise of Christianity, and the weakening of the Roman legions. In addition to this, the Romans had spent a lot of gold to pay for their luxurious goods, so there was less gold to use in the coins. Even in southern Gaul and Hispania large barbarian groups remained, with thousands of warriors, in their own non-Roman military and social systems. But most of the Romans were not rich. Late in the year Alaric sent bishops to express his readiness to leave Italy if Honorius would only grant his people a supply of grain.
Overexpansion and military overspending At its height, the stretched from the Atlantic Ocean all the way to the Euphrates River in the Middle East, but its grandeur may have also been its downfall. Keith Hopkins says that the diminishing importance of tax-farming at the end of the Principate was a sign of moral progress, but also meant the government couldn't tap private corporations in the event of an emergency. Alaric's first in 408 caused dreadful famine within the walls. Apart from the losses in the Diocese of Africa, Hispania was slipping out of central control and into the hands of local rulers and Suevic bandits. From 461 to 465 the pious Italian aristocrat reigned.
The common people lived in small, smelly houses, like apartments of six or more floors that were known as islands. By 476, the last several emperors had simply been puppet emperors of the Germanic kingmakers, and the only thing that changed at this point was that the last Western Roman emperor, , was deposed by the Vandal leader. While Britain and Gaul were taken over by the Angels, Saxons, Jutes, and Franks, Spain and Italy were overrun by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths respectively. Large groups of historians come to terms with the idea that… 1792 Words 8 Pages in several element of the fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbon was right: The decline and fall of the Roman economy. Through efforts to teach Confucian ethics, the Han emperors built a shared sense of identity among their diverse subjects.