Ahmed Rawda Hassan Dai Rowida A. A group is more vulnerable to groupthink when the group is composed of members with similar backgrounds, is highly cohesive, has no clear rules or defined processes for decision making, has an outspoken leader, or is isolated from outsiders. Avoiding Groupthink Unfortunately, everyone is vulnerable to groupthink in one situation or another. Groupthink or Deadlock: When do Leaders Learn from their Advisors?. Exactly such a connotation is intended, since the term refers to a deterioration in mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgments as a result of group pressures. At present, we have the freedom to post our answers individually without caring the responses of others. Thus, it is best for leaders to take an open style leadership approach, so that the group can discuss the issue without any pressures from the leader.
It helped me view my own perspectives in new ways and guided me to insights that I was unable to gain without such exposure. When a team member suppresses his or her own opinions to preserve group harmony, the team member is being peer pressured into submission. Take the business lunch for example; I have always found it a bit odd that I do not like to mingle despite being a social person by nature. This faulty decision making on the eve of the Challenger launch would soon prove to be a fatal mistake. Since one of the symptoms of group-think is a tendency to see things in the same way for long periods of time, a leader who can add alternative focuses in the discussion when things creep into falling into old habits, can prompt new kinds of interactions to widen the scope of the group's thinking. Groupthink is a construct of social psychology but has an extensive reach and influences literature in the fields of , , , and , as well as important aspects of deviant religious behaviour. The same study indicates that level of group cohesiveness is insignificant in predicting groupthink occurrence.
Exposing oneself to external triggers is. Resistance to Change Members of cohesive groups rely heavily on each other and resist external ideas and input. Most of the initial research on groupthink was conducted by , a research psychologist from. Have you ever been in a group where you felt that you had to go along with the majority even though you did not agree with the decision? Scholars continue to investigate many of its fundamental features, and the theory continues to be discussed in the popular media newspapers and television. You are about to experience something for the very first time. Scholars such as Janis and Raven attribute political and military fiascoes, such as the , the , and the , to the effect of groupthink.
This person can be selected through being appointing from another division or by hiring a completely external individual who has no bias or predetermined opinions. Second, conformity reduces the individuality and diversity necessary for. Groupthink in Government: a Study of Small Groups and Policy Failure. Janis considered a high degree of cohesiveness to be the most important antecedent to producing groupthink and always present when groupthink was occurring; however, he believed high cohesiveness would not always produce groupthink. Decision emergence: Phases in group decision making. These symptoms are illusion of invulnerability, collective rationalization, illusion or morality, excessive stereotyping, pressure for conformity, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity, and mindguards. While there are too many to list them all, an example is the blind trust in financial markets over economic fundamentals in decision-making.
Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without of alternative viewpoints by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences. Janis believes that groups frequently make decisions with profound consequences, and although he focused his efforts on foreign policy groups, the application of Groupthink terminology resonates in many other decision-making groups. Sometimes you need other perspectives to find answers to what you are looking for. The group is more concerned with maintaining unity than with objectively evaluating their situation, alternatives and options. Incomplete Analysis Because groupthink often pressures dissenters to toe the line in conforming to majority opinion, important aspects of a situation are often left unquestioned, sometimes with disastrous results.
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. While you may not deal with life-or-death situations in the groups that you are a part of, do know that groupthink can lead to ineffective decisions that can have negative consequences. Groupthink and Isolation Groupthink tends to occur in isolated groups, especially in groups with no clear rules for decision making and in groups where all of the people involved have similar backgrounds. This results partly from group isolation within the business. For example, if everyone becomes more risk averse under pressure, your team may not seize certain opportunities. The group may come to hate and distrust people who disagree with them and may come to overestimate their power and influence. A very cohesive group abides to all group ; whether or not groupthink arises is dependent on what the group norms are.
Groupthinking is politic and politic is what the political animal does. A bad hire can lead to a domino effect of negative experiences within the company. Even if an individual member of the group becomes convinced of the need for change, he may find it difficult to put into practice due to the strength of the group dynamic. If they self-censor, and keep the information to themselves, it cannot be considered by the group when making a final hiring decision. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. And Anur's comment about the asynchronous discussion helping us to avoid group think is brilliant.
He initially defined groupthink as follows: I use the term groupthink as a quick and easy way to refer to the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive ingroup that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Groupthink is when people in a group have the same decisions and thinking to promote harmony and a common purpose. Bad Decisions are Made Because There is No Opposition Groupthink can create an overwhelming desire for unanimous decisions. Structural faults Cohesion is necessary for groupthink, but it becomes even more likely when the group is organized in ways that disrupt the communication of information, and when the group engages in carelessness while making decisions. Just moments after the Challenger launched, the O-ring failed and the Challenger exploded, causing seven crew members to lose their lives. I have to admit, being in a mid-career mid-life stage, what I described above is quite a rare occasion. Group members should be allowed to discuss with and question the outside experts.
This example serves as a reminder to all groups of the disastrous outcomes that result from groupthink, and the need to make an effort to take preventative measures to decrease it. That is the tendency of group think. Overestimation of group: Illusion of invulnerability; Belief in own morality 2. Navy officers based in Hawaii. It wants you to follow the majority. Janis published an influential book in 1972, which was revised in 1982. Members of cohesive groups deal with conflict openly and constructively.