C The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1. Concentrates on the importance of the contribution of bureaucrats to the reforms of the period in one of the German states. Notably, the Enlightenment was adopted by several absolute monarchs, or monarchs with total power. This is different than a constitutional monarchy, where the power of the monarch is restricted by the constitution. Finally, and perhaps most important, it ignores the fact that the reforms could serve both purposes simultaneously, making it unnecessary for contemporaries to draw this distinction.
But in its original form, the term as coined by eighteenth-century French thinkers —philosophers, philosophical popularizers, and social commentators, known collectively as philosophes —described the kind of government they felt was necessary to break through the complex of laws, attitudes, and habits that maintained a society of unjust privilege, stunted economic growth, and perpetuated governmental inefficiency and waste. Answer 1 Also called benevolent despotism, enlightened despotism is a form of government most common in the 18th century in which absolute monarchs pursued legal, social, and educational reforms inspired by the Enlightenment. They each wanted to see religion sharply reduced in political affairs and in society writ large. Lesson Summary During the 17th and 18th centuries, an intellectual philosophy called the Enlightenment swept over Europe. Their policies promoted religious tolerance, advocated full for religious minorities including , insisted on curbing wasteful governmental expenditures, sought in various ways to stimulate their economies, and attempted to liberate serfs from the feudal control of their noble lords. Indeed, Frederick embraced Enlightenment ideals by granting Prussians further freedoms. Catherine did as much as she could to seize control and push her people forward.
The idea is to keep your body as still as possible but keep your conscious mind active. It should seem a bit contradictory that an Emperor like Napoleon believed in the Enlightenment. Mendelssohn argued against anti-Semitic policies. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. B The Junkers and the Serfs: -A firm believer in social order, Frederick strengthened the Junkers' priveledges -The Junkers retained full control over their serfs. Second, it ignores the opinions of the philosophes themselves, most of whom believed that the motives of the enlightened despots were shaped, to a considerable extent, by enlightened values. Although his country was Germanic, he preferred French for both language and art.
First of all it is necessary to understand the role of a Despot. Enlightened Absolutism Some things just sound contradictory. From Despotism to Revolution, 1763—1789 1944. While authoritarian leadership is inherently repressive in some ways, this does not mean that the leader cannot exercise tolerance in other areas. Ideas like these were expressed in his letters to Voltaire and quickly became a symbol of the Enlightened Absolutist movement.
On the other side of this are the actual political systems of Europe. Key Figures in the Enlightened Absolutism Movement In the 18 th century, the question for kings and queens became, how do we justify our rule in the wake of these enlightened ideals? Frederick made many social reforms that were toward Enlightenment ideals. With the assistance of French experts, he reorganized the system of indirect taxes, which soon provided the state with more revenue. But since most of Europe was occupied by societies with heavily entrenched noble and clerical classes with equally entrenched privileges and special interests, they tended to hold up advancement. They idealized examples of this natural humanity in the New World. They believed they were religiously chosen to rule the people. What had once been philosophy became reality under Frederick the Great.
They were called Enlightened Despots and were rulers who tried to justify their absolute rule by getting the people's interest. There were many aspects of this category that the thinkers questioned. He also implemented a number of religious policies that encouraged tolerance and acceptance of religious minorities. Thinkers such as Gotthold Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn showed religion in different lights. They both commiserated on the importance of a benevolent despot in governmental rule. Or at least this is what the 'Philosophs' thought, Enlightenment thinkers mostly in France. He even managed to stay away from any serious war.
Such was the case in the 18th-century, when several monarchs of Central and Western Europe adopted and implemented ideals of the Enlightenment, an intellectual movement which by and large denied that monarchies were the basis of political power! Itsuggests not only having a large amount of power concentrated inthe hands of one leader, but also that the l … eader uses that powerarbitrarily, mercilessly, unjustly, or in certain cases to aid hisnation. Enlightened despots believed that they were destined to be ruler the moment they were born. All of the following rulers supported Enlightenment and tried to better their people, yet were not willing to lose any power in the process. With the help of revolutionary thinkers like Voltaire, Descartes, Montesquieu, Spinoza, etc. Once the systems which maintain the entire structure are in place, he must not interfere with their operation. Centralized control necessitated centralized systematic information on the nation.
In India, the French siezed the Madras from the British. In the end, enlightened despotism can be seen as the final stage of absolute monarchy, but also started a new conception of government power as rule by and under public law. Their reforms benefited both the people and the monarchy. However all three monarchs Catherine the Great, Maria Theresa, and Frederick the Great seemed to only like to talk about these reforms. A Sister of Marie Antoinette: The Life-Story of Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples.
French supported Prussia and English supported Austria 2. His taxes, the imposition of German as the single official language, and the forced annulment of local governments and customs were all unpopular reforms. In fact, Frederick the Great was probably the most vocal supporter of the movement itself. Unlike Frederick, he was not greatly skilled at warfare, but like Frederick, he did care deeply about his people. An enlightened despot is an authoritarian leader who exercises rationality and, in some cases, tolerance.